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Heredity refers to the passing of genetic factors from parents to offspring or from one generation to the next. Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, is considered to be the father of genetics. Genetics is the science that studies patterns and mechanisms of heredity and Mendel laid the foundations of this field with his seminal work on garden pea plants.

Introduction to Heredity

To start exploring heredity, watch the video below.

Punnett Squares

Punnett squares are used to calculate probabilities of different phenotypes. Learn more about them, including how to use them to perform calculations, by watching the video below.

Mendel and His Peas

As mentioned, Gregor Mendel is considered to be the father of genetics. To learn about his work and the experiments he conducted that eventually led to his discoveries, read this article, and return here afterward.

The Law of Segregation

Mendel's experiments led to the formulation of the law of segregation, whereby when an organism makes gametes, each gamete receives just one gene copy, which is selected randomly. Read this article about the law of segregation, and return here afterward.

The Law of Independent Assortment

Mendel also found out that different genes are inherited independently of one another, following what's called the law of independent assortment. Read this article explaining the law, and return here afterward.


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